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INTRODUCTORY E|3SAY.                                197
the extreme west from which hoth classes of plants are ab-
sent, or in which these exterior Himalayan trees are'fcHjnd
along with forms common in Kunawar and Kishtwar. Fo-
thergilla 4nvofacrata (first observed hy Falconer, in Kashmir)
is a curious instance of a tree plentiful in all parts of the
temperate fconft, from Kashmir to the Ravi, but not found
further east.
The alpine flora of the.Western Himalaya presents -the
same gradual transition from humid rind eastern types to the
characteristic forms of Western Asia, which we have ob-
setved in the tropical and- temperate zones. The mountains
of pastern Kumaon are rich in beautiful Nipal forms, such as
CyananthMS) Meconopsis, Codonopsis, various gentians, saxi-
frages, and many others; but their number rapidly diminishes
as we advance westward, and the vegetation- of the higher
Alps of Kashmir is almost identical even in species \pith that
of the mountains of Afghanistan, Persia, and Siberia.
For our earliest knowledge of the vegetation of the Western
Himalaya we are indebted to Dr. Govan, who seems to haye
explored some parts of Sirmur and Garhwal, and .to General
Hardwicke, who travelled in Garhwal and communicated plants
to Ttoxbur^h and Wallich. The Wallichian Herbarium con-
tains specimens from both these travellers, and also from
the Gerards, who collected in the Simla hills and in Kunawar.
Dr. Wallich's travels extended only io Hardwar and Dehra
Dhun, but he also distributed extensive collections made in
the interior of Kumaon by Blinkworth and others.
The list of botanists who have investigated the flora of the
Western Himalaya, includes the names of Boyle, Jaijquemont,
Falconer, Griffith, Munrb, Edgeworth, Madde'n, Strachcy,
Winterbottom, and Fleming; but we have already (pp. 60-
70) .entered into, such details regarding their labours, as to
render it unnecessary to dwdl* upon them here. Mr. Edge-
worth collected in Kumaon, Garhwal, Simla, and Kunawar,
and he has recently communicated to the Hookerian Her-
barium a valuable set of plants from Chambn and Kulu, and